Download e-book for iPad: Bioinformatics: Genes, Proteins and Computers by Christine Orengo, David Jones, Janet Thornton

By Christine Orengo, David Jones, Janet Thornton

ISBN-10: 1859960545

ISBN-13: 9781859960547

Univ. collage, London, united kingdom. Covers either the conventional techniques together with gene and protein series research and constitution prediction, and more moderen applied sciences resembling datamining to supply insights on mobile mechanisms. Written particularly for complex point classes for undergraduates. Softcover.

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Example text

High-resolution maps of the genome are required for this purpose too, so before discussing how genes are identified in eukaryotic genomic DNA, we consider methods for constructing maps and identifying the positions of individual genes. 1 Genetic and physical maps There are two types of map—genetic and physical. A genetic map is based on recombination frequencies, the principle being that the further apart two loci are on a chromosome, the more likely they are to be separated by recombination during meiosis.

CpG islands are short stretches of hypomethylated GC-rich DNA often found associated with the promoters of vertebrate genes. They can be detected by computer (see main text) but enzymatic methods involving restriction enzymes with CG-rich recognition sites are also available. An alternative PCRbased technique has also been used. cDNA capture. A hybridization approach in which genomic clones are used to capture related cDNAs in solution. This is more sensitive than RNA or cDNA blots but still relies on the gene being adequately expressed in the cells from which the cDNA was derived.

They often affect the fitness of the individual (this is the case for human diseases). • It is often not possible to accurately map the markers themselves. e. polymorphic DNA sequences that are abundant in the genome, easily detected in the laboratory but generally have no overt phenotypic effect. The first polymorphic DNA markers were restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). These are single nucleotide variations that create or abolish a restriction enzyme site. The first genome-wide human genetic map was based on about 400 RFLPs and RFLP maps have been constructed for a number of other animals.

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Bioinformatics: Genes, Proteins and Computers by Christine Orengo, David Jones, Janet Thornton

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