By Feucht, D.
This quantity, for engineers and scholars, offers the elemental rules of transistor circuit research, uncomplicated per-stage development blocks, and suggestions. The content material is specific to quasi-static (low-frequency) concerns, to stress uncomplicated topological rules. The reader can be in a position to examine and layout multi-stage amplifiers with suggestions, together with calculation and specification of achieve, enter and output resistances, together with the results of transistor output resistance. The presentation of suggestions research contains very important insights disregarded of alternative books. Multiple-path amplifiers can be an issue hardly ever discovered in different places, notwithstanding universal in perform. either are coated with insights and from angles that may decrease research to inspection for readers. a few circuit differences defined inside of are particularly useful in lowering circuits to less complicated kinds for research. they're usefully utilized in contemplating transistor circuits for which collector-emitter (or drain-source) resistance isn't negligible, one other frequently passed over subject which this e-book information. Examples are given all through to demonstrate program of rules.
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Additional info for Designing Amplifier Circuits, Volume 1 - Analog Circuit Design Series
The cascode gain formula does not exactly apply because some current is lost in the 866 Ω biasing resistor that shunts the emitter of Q2. 0 mA. 7 Ω. For Q2, node 40 is driven by a Thevenin equivalent circuit of 6 V and 500 Ω. 60 V. Then the familiar diode-resistance circuit can be iteratively solved. 5 Ω. Knowing the quasistatic emitter resistances, the voltage gain can be found. 75 kΩ. 75 kΩ). 99. 75 kΩ Ω Then −ic2 · RL= vo. 03 This agrees with the SPICE gain. 020E+03 The static output voltage is, according to SPICE, about 20 mV, or nearly zero volts – the same as the input.
For a typical a ≅ 1, IO is a replication of II. This circuit is useful, for example, in supplying IO to a diff-amp. If the emitter and cathode are connected to −VEE, the current can be set by a resistor from the input to ground. If the voltage across the resistor is much larger than the diode voltage, II is largely determined by the resistor value. Ampliﬁer Circuits 57 The basic Widlar current mirror can be improved by an additional transistor to compensate for base current lost to the transistor.
9 Ω Because the input of Q2 is bootstrapped, the input resistance to Q2 (from the base of Q2, including the 10 kΩ resistor between nodes 20 and 50) can be found by using the vb/ii equation. 0473 re 1 + rin 2 The gain of Q2 is found as follows: Av 2 = r i vb 2 ic 2 ⋅ ⋅ ( −R L ) = in 2 ⋅ c 2 ⋅ ( −R L ) re 1 + rin 2 vb 2 vi vb 2 ⇑ ic vb for shunt b -e The bootstrapping equation is used to ﬁnd the transconductance of the Q2 stage. 67 MΩ The SPICE result agrees. 100E+03 With a gain of less than one, the purpose of this ampliﬁer stage is to reduce input loading rather than to achieve voltage gain.
Designing Amplifier Circuits, Volume 1 - Analog Circuit Design Series by Feucht, D.