By Guy Lemieux
Programmable common sense units (PLDs) became the most important implementation medium for nearly all of electronic circuits designed at the present time. whereas the highest-volume units are nonetheless equipped with full-fabrication instead of box programmability, the fad in the direction of ever fewer ASICs and extra FPGAs is obvious. This makes the sector of PLD structure ever extra very important, as there's enhanced call for for swifter, smaller, more affordable and lower-power programmable common sense. PLDs are ninety% routing and 10% good judgment. This publication makes a speciality of that ninety% that's the programmable routing: the way during which the programmable wires are hooked up and the circuit layout of the programmable switches themselves. an individual looking to comprehend the layout of an FPGA must turn into lit erate within the complexities of programmable routing structure. This booklet builds at the cutting-edge of programmable interconnect by way of offering new equipment of investigating and measuring interconnect buildings, in addition to new programmable change simple circuits. The early component of this ebook offers a good survey of interconnec tion constructions and circuits as they exist this day. Lemieux and Lewis then offer a brand new method to layout sparse crossbars as they're utilized in PLDs, and express that the strategy works with an empirical validation. this can be considered one of a number of routing structure works that hire analytical the way to take care of the routing archi tecture layout. The research allows fascinating insights no longer regularly attainable with the traditional empirical approach.
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Extra resources for Design of Interconnection Networks for Programmable Logic
This means that signals entering the routing on track number i must remain on that track number until the destination is reached. 366 is used when N = 10. As well, Feoul = 1/N is used throughout. These switch density choices are made to be consistent with previous work [BRM99, AROO]. However, as will be shown in Chapter 5, the precise Fe selection is not too critical. The baseline routing architecture just described has been shown to achieve good area· delay performance in [BRM99]. It has also been used in other studies [AROO, SROl, Roo02].
Row Networks Row-based networks are organised as horizontal rows oflogic cells separated by routing channels. Horizontal wires of various lengths are placed end-to-end in a track, with multiple tracks comprising a channel. Switches within a track may connect several wires so they behave as one longer wire. Additional switches connect track wires to either logic cell inputs or outputs. Connections between wiring tracks of different rows are made by vertical wires known as feedthroughs. Each feedthrough can be connected with any of the row wires.
This chapter addresses this issue by describing conditions necessary for routability (Hall's Theorem), a method for evaluating routability without resorting to place-and-route experiments, and a construction algorithm that achieves good performance. Results for a few design cases will exemplify the area requirements and routability obtainable from these sparse crossbars. In general, however, the construction algorithm and evaluation method will work for any number of inputs, outputs, or switches.
Design of Interconnection Networks for Programmable Logic by Guy Lemieux