By Stuart G. Silverman MD, Richard H. Cohan MD
That includes over 500 photos, this atlas is the 1st textual content on appearing and reading CT urography. Chapters aspect the indicators and strategies for CT urography, evaluate the hazards of radiation publicity, exhibit how common urinary tract anatomy and versions seem on CT scans, and display a variety of urinary tract abnormalities as they seem on thin-section CT. the ultimate bankruptcy illustrates artifacts and diagnostic pitfalls.
Chapters on abnormalities persist with a case-based instructing dossier structure. each one case is gifted on a two-page unfold, with pictures and succinct dialogue of the entity and the way CT urography used to be used to diagnose it.
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Extra resources for CT Urography An Atlas
In addition to its effects on insulin secretion, β-cell growth and proliferation, cAMP may also enhance differentiation. GLP-1 appears to increase the expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox – 1 (PDX-1) (Perfetti et al. 2000), a transcription factor central to the differentiation of pancreatic endocrine, exocrine, and ductal cell populations from endoderm during fetal development (Zhou et al. 2002; Ofﬁeld et al. 1996). PDX-1 is also necessary for maturation of β-cells and allows selective differentiation of pancreatic endocrine progenitors to form insulin-producing β-cells while suppressing formation of glucagon-producing α-cells (McKinnon and Docherty 2001; Ber et al.
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PKA maintains temporal Role of the cAMP Pathway in Glucose and Lipid Metabolism 35 autoregulation of the cAMP signal while promoting lipolysis by allowing PDE3B ﬁne-tuning of the cAMP signal to a concentration range that is ideal to sustain activity, whereas AKT blocks lipolysis by dissociating it from lipolytic signals at least in part by activating discrete pools of PDE3B. Signiﬁcantly, PDE3B mutant mice show hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, suggesting that the increase in lipolysis is not accompanied by an increase in fatty acid oxidation and may reﬂect the redundancy between PDE family members or the diminished importance of PDE3B in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation in non-adipose tissues such as the liver.
CT Urography An Atlas by Stuart G. Silverman MD, Richard H. Cohan MD