By Stanley Monkhouse
Cranial nerves are focused on head and neck functionality, and methods resembling consuming, speech and facial features. This clinically orientated survey of cranial nerve anatomy and serve as, for college kids of medication, dentistry and speech remedy, can be helpful for postgraduate physicians and GPs, and experts in head and neck healthcare. After an introductory part surveying cranial nerve association and tough fundamentals similar to ganglia, nuclei and mind stem pathways, the nerves are thought of in sensible teams. In every one bankruptcy, the most anatomical beneficial properties of every nerve are via scientific features and information of scientific trying out. uncomplicated line diagrams accompany the textual content.
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Additional info for Cranial Nerves Functional Anatomy
1 Motor fibres Motor fibres are present in all cranial nerves except I, II and VIII. 2 Classification of motor components in cranial nerves In spinal nerves, it is useful to distinguish between somatic and visceral motor fibres. This is based on the embryological origin of the muscle innervated. Somatic motor (voluntary) fibres innervate muscles which develop from somites: striated muscle. Cell bodies are the ventral horn cells of the spinal cord grey matter. These muscles are under voluntary control.
Somatic nuclei are oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nuclei. 2 Branchiomotor nuclei: These develop lateral to somatic nuclei, between them and parasympathetic nuclei. 3). 3 Parasympathetic nuclei: These are the most laterally placed of the brain stem motor nuclei, equivalent to lateral horn cells of the spinal cord. They include Edinger–Westphal, superior and inferior salivatory, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Brain stem motor nuclei thus make up three interrupted columns: somatic motor, branchiomotor (special visceral motor) and parasympathetic (general visceral motor).
4 27 Bilateral upper motor neuron control of III, IV, VI and part of VII The pattern in the head and neck, as in the rest of the body, is that the motor cortex innervates contralateral motor nuclei. However, muscles which move the eyes, and the eyelids and forehead in association with eye movements, receive bilateral cortical innervation. The nuclei concerned are the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV) and abducens (VI), and that portion of facial (VII) motor nucleus which innervates orbicularis oculi and frontalis.
Cranial Nerves Functional Anatomy by Stanley Monkhouse