By Pieter A. J. Nuyts, Patrick Reynaert, Wim Dehaene
This ebook describes the layout of absolutely electronic multistandard transmitter front-ends which could without delay force a number of switching energy amplifiers, hence putting off all different analog elements. After reviewing diversified architectures, the authors specialize in polar architectures utilizing pulse width modulation (PWM), that are totally in response to unclocked hold up traces and different continuous-time electronic undefined. consequently, readers are enabled to shift accuracy matters from the voltage area to the time area, to coincide with submicron CMOS expertise scaling. The authors current diverse architectural techniques and evaluate them, according to their impact at the sign and spectrum caliber. subsequent, a high-level theoretical research of 2 diversified PWM-based architectures – baseband PWM and RF PWM – is made. at the circuit point, conventional electronic parts and layout suggestions are revisited from the viewpoint of continuous-time electronic circuits. very important layout standards are pointed out and assorted recommendations are offered, besides their benefits and drawbacks. eventually, chips designed in nanometer CMOS applied sciences are defined, in addition to size effects for validation.
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Additional resources for Continuous-Time Digital Front-Ends for Multistandard Wireless Transmission
4b . e. the plotted waveforms are Vds /Vdd and Ids R L /Vdd . The waveforms for the pMOS transistor are the same but are shifted by half a carrier period the ratio of the output power at the fundamental frequency f c to the total supply power . It follows that the drain efficiency of the class-D PA shown in Fig. 4a is significantly lower than 100 %. This can be solved by adding an LC bandpass filter as shown in Fig. 4b , which has zero series impedance at the desired carrier frequency and ideally an infinite impedance at the harmonic frequencies.
The main goal of this chapter is to optimize the high-level parameters prior to starting circuit design. In Chap. 4, the focus is moved down to the circuit level. Several important aspects of the design of continuous-time digital circuits are treated, and different implementations for the most important building blocks are compared. At the end of this book, the presented models and techniques are validated using two test chips implemented in standard CMOS. The first one contains a baseband PWM modulator which was measured stand-alone and in combination with an external power amplifier (PA).
During the symbol period, the amplitude and phase of each subcarrier are constant. 2 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 c 1 Δf 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fig. 16) where ∗ denotes convolution (see Sect. 2) and the sinc function is defined in Sect. 1. Thus, the spectrum consists of sinc pulses centered at frequencies ± f i , which means their centers are spaced by the subcarrier spacing Δf . Since the sinc pulses have infinite bandwidths, they overlap. However, if Δf = 1/T , then the sinc functions are centered at each other’s zeros, so that there is exactly one subcarrier which has a nonzero contribution at each frequency f i .
Continuous-Time Digital Front-Ends for Multistandard Wireless Transmission by Pieter A. J. Nuyts, Patrick Reynaert, Wim Dehaene