By Caroline O. N. Moser
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Additional info for Confronting Crisis: A Summary of Household Responses to Poverty and Vulnerability in Four, Poor Urban Communities (Environmentally Sustainable Development Studies and Monographs Series)
2. Where the improvements in social and economic infrastructure of the 1970s have not been maintained through the 1980s and into the 1990s, there have been implications for the ability of poor householdsless able to substitute private for public servicesto earn incomes. Poverty statistics are people with the tears wiped off 3. Housing is an important productive asset that can cushion households against severe poverty, and land market regulation can either create opportunities to diversify its use or foreclose them.
As households become poorer, the most important response has been for women to join the labor force. Between 1978 and 1992 the share of women working increased most dramatically in Chawama, where it rose from 9 percent to 34 percent; in Cisne Dos it went from 32 percent to 46 percent (figure 1). In Commonwealth the proportion of women working increased from 22 percent to 37 percent in just four years (198892). Figure 1. The most common response to declining household income is for women to go to work (percentage of women in the workforce, 197892) Note: There are no trend data for Angyalföld.
The research team undertaking the fieldwork in Cisne Dos, Ecuador, consisted of Caroline Moser; Bank consultants Alicia Herbert and Peter Sollis; and Carmita Narboa, Josefina Tomala, Emma Torres, Anna Rosa Vera, Angela Vinneza, and Lucia Zavala, all residents of Cisne Dos. Diane Elson, Alison Scott, Amartya Sen, and Richard Webb served as external advisers to the project, and Hans Binswanger, David de Ferranti, Ravi Kanbur, and Joanne Salop as internal World Bank reviewers. Review from a regional perspective was provided by World Bank colleagues Christine Allison, Mark Blackden, Geoffrey Gutman, Jesko Hentschel, Erika Jorgensen, Steven Jorgensen, Elizabeth Morris-Hughes, Helena Ribe, Maryam Salim, and Eduardo Somensatto.
Confronting Crisis: A Summary of Household Responses to Poverty and Vulnerability in Four, Poor Urban Communities (Environmentally Sustainable Development Studies and Monographs Series) by Caroline O. N. Moser