By Frank H. Stephenson

ISBN-10: 0126657513

ISBN-13: 9780126657517

*Calculations for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A advisor to arithmetic within the Laboratory, moment Edition*, offers an creation to the myriad of laboratory calculations utilized in molecular biology and biotechnology. The ebook starts off through discussing using medical notation and metric prefixes, which require using exponents and an knowing of vital digits. It explains the math considering making options; the features of mobile progress; the multiplicity of an infection; and the quantification of nucleic acids. It contains chapters that care for the math eager about using radioisotopes in nucleic acid study; the synthesis of oligonucleotides; the polymerase chain response (PCR) approach; and the improvement of recombinant DNA expertise. Protein quantification and the evaluation of protein task also are mentioned, besides the centrifugation process and purposes of PCR in forensics and paternity testing.

- Topics diversity from easy medical notations to advanced topics like nucleic acid chemistry and recombinant DNA technology
- Each bankruptcy encompasses a short clarification of the concept that and covers precious definitions, concept and intent for every form of calculation
- Recent functions of the systems and computations in medical, educational, commercial and uncomplicated study laboratories are brought up in the course of the text

New to this Edition:

- Updated and elevated assurance of genuine time PCR and the maths used to degree gene expression
- More pattern difficulties in each bankruptcy for readers to perform strategies

**Read Online or Download Calculations for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. A Guide to Mathematics in the Laboratory PDF**

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**Additional info for Calculations for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. A Guide to Mathematics in the Laboratory**

**Example text**

When the rate of dissociation into ions is equal to the rate of ion reassociation, the system is said to be in equilibrium. A strong acid will reach equilibrium at the point where it is completely dissociated. A weak acid will have a lower percentage of molecules in a dissociated state and will reach equilibrium at a point less than 100% ionization. The concentration of acid at which equilibrium occurs is called the acid dissociation constant, designated by the symbol K~. +][A-] 39 40 Solutions, Mixtures, and Media ,,,,, ,, , , A measure of K~ for a weak acid is given by its p K a, which is equivalent to the negative logarithm of Ka: p K a = _ logKa pH is related to pK a by the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation- pH = pK a + log [conjugate base] ,[acid] [A-] = pK a + log [HA] The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation can be used to calculate the amount of acid and conjugate base to be combined for the preparation of a buffer solution having a particular pH, as demonstrated in the following problem.

Just as water has a pH, so does it have a pOI-I, which is defined as the negative logarithm of the OH- (hydroxyl ion) concentration. 5. What is the solution's pOH? 19 The pOH is obtained by subtracting the pH from 14. pOH = 1 4 - pH pOH = 14 - 4 . 5. 02 M solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). 20 Sodium hydroxide is a strong base and, as such, is essentially ionized completely to Na + and OH- in dilute solution. 02 M, the same as the concentration of NaOH. For a strong base, the H + ion contribution from water is negligible and so will be ignored.

As predicted by the theory of spontaneous mutation, there are large differences in the numbers of Tl-resistant colonies derived from the parallel series of small cultures, while the number of Tl-resistant colonies per plate arising from samples of the bulk culture shows little variation. To examine these results mathematically, however, it is first necessary to determine the mean value for each set of cultures. A mean (also called an average) represents a value within the range of an entire set of numbers.

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