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By David Johns Ken Martin

ISBN-10: 0471144487

ISBN-13: 9780471144489

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Compared to use of the hybrid-it model, and thus it is useful for hand analysis. 56 Chapter 1 • Integrated-Circuit Devices and Modelling rb V b o-~'\Iv--' Fig. 34 v, A low-frequency, small-signal T model for an active BJT. 5 DEVICE MODEL SUMMARY As a useful aid, all of the equations for the large-signal and small-signal modelling of diodes, MOS transistors, and bipolar transistors, along with values for the various constants, are listed in the next few pages. 5 Device Model Summary 57 Forward-Biased Diode o, D Is = Aoqn ,( i -- + -LnN A LpN o p) I 10 = se VD/V T VT kT = - q - 26 mY at 300 OK Small-Signal Model of Forward-Biased Diode VT C T = Cd+C j rd = 10 10 Cd = ' T - Cj = - 2C ,o VT L'n Dn 'T = - MOS Transistor Equations The following equations are for n-channel devices-for p-channel devices, put negative signs in front of all voltages.

9 V). It should be noted that the cross-sectional area of the collector-base junction, Ac, is typically much larger than the effective area of the base-emitter junction, AE , which is shown in Fig. 25. This size differential results in Ac C jCO being larger than AE Cjeo, the base-emitter junction capacitance at 0 V bias, despite the lower doping levels. Finally, another large capacitor is C es' the capacitance of the collector-tosubstrate junction. Since this area is quite large, CCS' which is the depletion capacitance that results from this area, will be much larger than either C eb or the depletion capacitance component of C be, that is, Cj .

P-Channel Transistars All of the preceding equations have been presented for n-channel enhancement transistors. In the case of p-channel transistors, these equations can also be used if a negative sign is placed in front of every voltage variable. Thus, VGS becomes VSG' VOS becomes Vs o, V'n becomes -V,p, and so on. The condition required for conduction is now V SG > Vip. where Vtp is now a negative quantity for an enhancement p-channel transistor. 11 The requirement on the source-drain voltage for a p-channel transistor to be in the active region is Vso> VSG + V,p' The equations for ro, in both regions, remain unchanged, because all voltage variables are squared, resulting in positive hole current flow from the source to the drain in p-channel transistors.

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Analog Integrated Circuit Design by David Johns Ken Martin

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