New PDF release: An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation

By K. N. Liou

ISBN-10: 0124514510

ISBN-13: 9780124514515

Solid e-book for either undergrads and grads. additionally beneficial as a reference publication for researchers.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation

Sample text

By the flow of photons. Near the surface, however, because of the substantial blocking of radiant energy by the absorption of heavier elements, energy is transferred partly by convection and partly by electromagnetic radiation. Above the surface, energy transport is again by means of electromagnetic radiation. 1. It is clear that electromagnetic radiation characterized by wavelengths from gamma rays to radio waves (see Fig. 1) is by far the largest solar energy source for the earth and the most important for its weather and climate processes.

4 Variability of the sunspot number as function of year. Results from 1730 to 1870 are taken from Eddy (1977); those after 1860 are from Lean and Rind (1998). 44 2 Solar Radiation at the Top of the Atmosphere depicts the variation in the number of sunspots since about 1730. The number ranges from a few to a maximum of about 150. In the years of sunspot maxima, the sun’s surface is violently disturbed, and outbursts of particles and radiation are commonly observed. During sunspot minima periods, however, outbursts are much less frequent.

15). in Fig. 14 in the form s1 τλ (s1 , s) = kλ ρ ds . 16) Eq. 14) becomes − d Iλ (s) = −Iλ (s) + Bλ [T (s)]. 17) Upon multiplying Eq. 17) by a factor e−τλ (s1 ,s) , and integrating the thickness ds from 0 to s1 , we obtain s1 − s1 d[Iλ (s)e−τλ (s1 ,s) ] = 0 Bλ [T (s)]e−τλ (s1 ,s) dτλ (s1 , s). 18) 0 Consequently, we have s1 Iλ (s1 ) = Iλ (0)e−τλ (s1 ,0) + Bλ [T (s)]e−τλ (s1 ,s) kλ ρ ds. 19) 0 The first term in Eq. 19) is essentially equivalent to Eq. 7), representing the absorption attentuation of the radiant intensity by the medium.

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An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation by K. N. Liou

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