By Simin Karimi
This research addresses the issues scrambling langauges offer for the present syntactic theories by way of reading the interplay of semantic and discourse sensible components with syntactic houses of be aware order during this form of languages, and through discussing the consequences of this interplay for common Grammar. 3 interrelated ambitions are conscientiously during this paintings. the 1st is to research the syntactic constitution of Persian, a language which indicates unfastened notice order. With this research, the writer has accounted for the relative order of categorised expressions, the incentive for his or her attainable rearrangements, and the grammatical result of these reorderings. during this admire, a large variety of significant syntactic phenomena, together with item shift, Case, prolonged Projection precept (EPP), binding, and scope interpretation of quantifiers, interrogative words, adverbial words, and detrimental components are tested. This monograph is the 1st significant theoretical paintings ever released on Persian, and accordingly fills the prevailing hole by way of delivering perception into the syntactic constitution of this language. the second one objective is to attach those insights to comparable linguistic houses in languages within which scrambling happens (e.g. German, Dutch, Hindi, Russian, jap, and Korean), and to supply a deeper knowing of this crew of genetically assorted, yet typologically similar languages. the ultimate and significant target is to situate the result of this paintings in the framework of the Minimalist software (MP). The investigations during this research point out that scrambling isn't an not obligatory rule, and that yes rules of MP, comparable to the minimum hyperlink situation, are just likely violated in those languages. in addition, it truly is proven that cautious research of scrambling with recognize to binding and scope kin, and a reanalysis of the homes of A and A' routine, forged a few doubts at the relevance of a typology of stream in usual language.
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Additional info for A Minimalist Approach to Scrambling: Evidence from Persian
2. Problems Persian provides a number of problems for a theory that proposes a basegeneration approach to scrambling. First, we will see in chapter 4 that scrambling in Persian, local or long distance, represents either focus or topic, as we already saw in some cases in chapter 1. Additional examples are provided in (14). A scrambled element may be interpreted as topic or focus based on their stress. (14) a. ’ b. ’ c. ’ Base-generation approach 41 The sentence in (14a) represents an unmarked word order.
The reason is that they remain with no label once their uninterpretable features are matched and deleted. One departure from the earlier version of MP is that feature checking is not required to apply in a Spec-head relation. All that is required is a c-command relation in a local domain. The principle of Full Interpretation was first introduced in Chomsky (1986b: 98) with respect to the Visibility Condition which requires an NP to be assigned Case at S-structure in order to be visible at LF for the sake of theta assignment.
Arezu goft ke be Sasan hame mi-xand-an A said that to S everyone dur-laugh-3pl Lit. Arezu said that as for Sasan everyone laughs at (him). Or Arezu said that it is at SASAN that everyone laughs. Persian allows long-distance scrambling as well. The following examples exhibit the movement of the embedded subject, specific object, and indirect object into the matrix clause. Note that Persian is a Null Subject language, and therefore, pro appears in the following data. All scrambled elements can be interpreted as focus or topic, depending on the stress they carry.
A Minimalist Approach to Scrambling: Evidence from Persian by Simin Karimi