By Lucretius Carus, Titus; Konstan, David; Epicurus
Epicurus, and his Roman disciple Lucretius, held that the first reason for human sadness was once an irrational worry of demise. what's extra, they believed transparent knowing of the character of the area might support to get rid of this worry; for if we understand that the universe and every little thing in it truly is made of atoms and empty area, we'll see that the soul can't in all probability continue to exist the extinction of the physique -- and no damage to us can happen when we die. This freeing perception is on the center of Epicurean remedy. during this ebook, Konstan seeks to teach how such fears arose, based on the Epicureans, and why they persist even in glossy societies. It deals a detailed exam of the elemental rules of Epicurean psychology: displaying how a procedure according to a materialistic international view may supply a coherent account of irrational anxieties and wishes, and supply a remedy that might let humans to take pleasure in lifestyles to the fullest measure
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Extra info for A life worthy of the gods : the materialist psychology of Epicurus
14 Thus, in the Letter to Herodotus (63–64) Epicurus writes: “one must hold firmly that the soul [psukhê] is most responsible for sense-perception [aisthêsis]. But [the soul] would not have aquired this [power] if it were not somehow enclosed by the rest of the aggregate. But the rest of the aggregate, though it provides for the soul this cause [of sense-perception], itself has a share in this property because of the soul; for it does not share in all the features which the soul has” (trans. Inwood and Gerson 1997: 13, modified).
For lupê is both in the pressures of the body and of the soul in its own right, just as pleasure is, but ponos is in the body only” (῞Οτι τῇ ἡδονῇ ἡ λύπη ἐστὶν ἐναντίον ἀλλ᾿ οὐ πόνος. ῾Ο μὲν γὰρ πόνος σωματικήν τινα θλῖψιν ἐμφαίνει, ἡ δὲ λύπη ψυχικὴν συστολήν…. ἡ μὲν γὰρ λύπη καὶ ἐπὶ ταῖς θλίψεσι τοῦ σώματος καὶ αὐτῆς τῆς ψυχῆς ἐφ᾿ αὑτῆς, ὥσπερ καὶ ἡ ἡδονή, ὁ δὲ πόνος ἐπὶ σώματι μόνον). On ponos = dolor and labor, cf. Cicero Tusc. disp. 35. 17 On the distinction between joy and pleasure, cf. Purinton 1993: 287–88; I disagree, however, with Purinton’s definition of khara as “the intentional state which has pleasure as its object” (292).
Giannantoni’s interpretation is facilitated by taking ἐνεργείᾳ as dative. Stokes 1996: 160 rightly notes that “it is difficult to resist the supposition that ἀταραξία and ἀπονία offer within the katastematic category a contrast of bodily and mental”; hence both body and soul have both kinds of pleasures. Despite Stokes’ doubts, this surely reflects Epicurus’ own view. But the contrast between khara and euphrosunê is, Stokes says (161), obscure: the latter should, in the context, refer to kinetic bodily pleasure or hêdonê, and I do not doubt that it does, even though the term is not clearly so restricted in the Epicurean texts we have.
A life worthy of the gods : the materialist psychology of Epicurus by Lucretius Carus, Titus; Konstan, David; Epicurus